Knowledge Organisers

Latest Here => Subject Chat => English Chat => Topic started by: Sara on February 02, 2018, 04:39:32 PM

Title: The Elements of Eloquence
Post by: Sara on February 02, 2018, 04:39:32 PM
Mark Forsyth, bestselling author of The Etymologicon and The Horologicon, returns with his third book, The Elements of Eloquence: How to Turn the Perfect English Phrase. Get this and other books cheap here
In an age unhealthily obsessed with substance, this is a book on the importance of pure style.

From classic poetry to pop lyrics and from the King James Bible to advertising slogans, Mark Forsyth explains the secrets that make a phrase - such as 'Tiger, Tiger, burning bright', or 'To be or not to be' - memorable.

In his inimitably entertaining and witty style he takes apart famous lines and shows how you too can write like Shakespeare or Oscar Wilde. Whether you're aiming for literary immortality or just an unforgettable one-liner, The Elements of Eloquence proves that you don't need to have anything to say - you simply need to say it well.
Get your copy of the book here: The Elements of Eloquence (https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/1785781723?ie=UTF8&tag=assemb-21&camp=1634&linkCode=xm2&creativeASIN=1785781723)

https://youtu.be/1gHdlWVDL-I
Title: Re: The Elements of Eloquence
Post by: Sara on February 02, 2018, 05:08:59 PM
https://youtu.be/99k7x4IuUVI

The Elements of EloquenceWiki chapters are listed in Wikipedia as

Chapters
1
AlliterationWiki
Alliteration is the rhetorical device of repeating the sound of the first consonant in a series of multiple words. An example given by Forsyth is:

Whereat, with blade, with bloody blameful blade,
He bravely broached his boiling bloody breast;

— William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream
2
PolyptotonWiki
Further information: PolyptotonWiki and AntanaclasisWiki
The definition that Forsyth provides of polyptoton is that of "the use of one word as different parts of speech or in different grammatical forms". The term applies wherever words derived from the same root (such as wretched and wretchedness) are used, but other sources use the related term antanaclasis in examples when the same word is repeated but in a different sense.

Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle:
I am no traitor's uncle; and that word 'grace'
In an ungracious mouth is but profane.

— William Shakespeare, Richard II
3
AntithesisWiki
The figure of antithesis describes the use of two opposites for contrasting effect. The classic example quoted by Forsyth is:

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.

— Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities
4
MerismWiki
Merism is where a single thing is referred to by an enumeration of several of its parts, or a list of several synonyms for the same thing. Forsyth's chapter focuses on the first of these definitions and provides the following amongst various examples:

Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them

— Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Charge of the Light Brigade
5
BlazonWiki
Forsyth defines Blazon as "extended merism, the dismemberment of the loved one". The term is applied to a tradition of poetry that praised a woman by singling out different parts of her body and finding appropriate metaphors to compare them with.

6
SynaesthesiaWiki
Synaesthesia is a device is where one sense is described in terms of another. An example given by Forsyth is that of Eduard Hanslick's quoted criticism of Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto as "music that stinks to the ear".

7
AposiopesisWiki
Aposiopesis is a figure of speech wherein a sentence is deliberately broken off and left unfinished, the ending to be supplied by the imagination, giving an impression of unwillingness or inability to continue.[4]

8
HyperbatonWiki
Hyperbaton is a figure of speech which describes an alteration of the logical order of the words in a sentence.

9
AnadiplosisWiki
Anadiplosis describes the repetition of the last word of a preceding clause. Forsyth provides a biblical example amongst others:

We glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation worketh patience, and patience, experience, and experience, hope, and hope maketh man not ashamed

— Paul the Apostle, Epistle to the Romans
10
Periodic Sentences
A periodic sentence is one that is not complete grammatically before the final clause or phrase.

11
HypotaxisWiki and ParataxisWiki
Forsyth contrasts hypotaxis as a complex style of writing involving the use of a large number of subordinate clauses, with parataxis which describes the style of writing with short simple sentences.

12
DiacopeWiki
Diacope describes the close repetition of a word or phrase, separated by a word or words. Forsyth points to the film quote "Bond, James Bond" which he asserts is memorable not because of the name, or the scene, but simply to the use of diacope.

13
Rhetorical QuestionsWiki
The rhetorical question is a device where a question is stated to make a point, without requiring any answer because it is intended to be obvious.

14
HendiadysWiki
Hendiadys is a device used for emphasis, where an adjective-noun form is swapped for noun-and-noun.

15
EpistropheWiki
Epistrophe is a device using the repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences for emphasis.

16
TricolonWiki
Further information: IsocolonWiki
Tricolon is where a sentence is composed of three equal parts. Forsyth points to the national motto of France (Liberté, égalité, fraternité) as one of his many examples of the impact of this device.

17
EpizeuxisWiki
Epizeuxis is the repetition of a word or phrase in immediate succession, for emphasis.

18
SyllepsisWiki
Further information: ZeugmaWiki
Forsyth's definition is where a single word is used with two other parts of a sentence but must be understood differently in relation to each.

19
IsocolonWiki

Forsyth's definition seems to state that a sentence is composed by two parts equivalent in structure, length and rhythm. Other sources suggest two or more parts, and relate tricolon which is mentioned in the earlier chapter.

20
EnallageWiki
Enallage consists of a "deliberate grammatical mistake".

21
VersificationWiki
Forsyth in this chapter discusses the effect of a few different verse forms used, including examples of iambic pentameter.

22
ZeugmaWiki
Zeugma is a series of clauses which use the same verb.

23
ParadoxWiki
The paradox is a statement that is logically false or impossible for emphasis or contrast.

24
ChiasmusWiki
Chiasmus is a symmetrical repetition of structure or wording.

25
AssonanceWiki
Further information: Assonance
This device consists of the repetition of a vowel sound.

26
The Fourteenth Rule
This chapter discusses the rhetorical device of providing an unnecessarily specific number for something for emphasis.

27
CatachresisWiki
Further information: Catachresis
This device describes a grammatically wrong use of words as a means of creative expression.

28
LitotesWiki

This device emphasises a point by denying the opposite.

29
MetonymyWiki and SynecdocheWiki

These devices are where something connected to the thing described, or a part of it, is used in place of the thing itself.

30
Transferred Epithets
Further information: HypallageWiki
Where an adjective is applied to the wrong noun, for effect.

31
PleonasmWiki

The use of superfluous and unnecessary words in a sentence for emphasis.

32
EpanalepsisWiki

This describes the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning and end of a sentence or clause to emphasize circularity.

33
PersonificationWiki

A description which imputes human actions or characteristics to an inanimate or non-human thing.

34
HyperboleWiki

The rhetorical device of exaggeration.

35
Adynaton
Further information: Adynaton
This device describes a hyperbole so extreme as to be a complete impossibility.

36
Prolepsis
Further information: Prolepsis (rhetoric)
This device describes the use of a pronoun at the start of a sentence, which reverses the normal order.

37
Congeries
This device, Forysth defines as a bewildering list of adjectives or nouns.

38
Scesis Onomaton
Further information: Scesis Onomaton
Sentences without a main verb.

39
Anaphora
Further information: Anaphora (rhetoric)
Forsyth defines anaphora as starting each sentence with the same words.
Title: Re: The Elements of Eloquence
Post by: Sara on February 02, 2018, 05:31:13 PM
More from Mark Forsyth

Use ☰ to choose Video Click Title to Enlarge