The Elements of EloquenceWiki
chapters are listed in Wikipedia as
Alliteration is the rhetorical device of repeating the sound of the first consonant in a series of multiple words. An example given by Forsyth is:
Whereat, with blade, with bloody blameful blade,
He bravely broached his boiling bloody breast;
— William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream
Further information: PolyptotonWiki
The definition that Forsyth provides of polyptoton is that of "the use of one word as different parts of speech or in different grammatical forms". The term applies wherever words derived from the same root (such as wretched and wretchedness) are used, but other sources use the related term antanaclasis in examples when the same word is repeated but in a different sense.
Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle:
I am no traitor's uncle; and that word 'grace'
In an ungracious mouth is but profane.
— William Shakespeare, Richard II
The figure of antithesis describes the use of two opposites for contrasting effect. The classic example quoted by Forsyth is:
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.
— Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities
Merism is where a single thing is referred to by an enumeration of several of its parts, or a list of several synonyms for the same thing. Forsyth's chapter focuses on the first of these definitions and provides the following amongst various examples:
Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them
— Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Charge of the Light Brigade
Forsyth defines Blazon as "extended merism, the dismemberment of the loved one". The term is applied to a tradition of poetry that praised a woman by singling out different parts of her body and finding appropriate metaphors to compare them with.
Synaesthesia is a device is where one sense is described in terms of another. An example given by Forsyth is that of Eduard Hanslick's quoted criticism of Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto as "music that stinks to the ear".
Aposiopesis is a figure of speech wherein a sentence is deliberately broken off and left unfinished, the ending to be supplied by the imagination, giving an impression of unwillingness or inability to continue.
Hyperbaton is a figure of speech which describes an alteration of the logical order of the words in a sentence.
Anadiplosis describes the repetition of the last word of a preceding clause. Forsyth provides a biblical example amongst others:
We glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation worketh patience, and patience, experience, and experience, hope, and hope maketh man not ashamed
— Paul the Apostle, Epistle to the Romans
A periodic sentence is one that is not complete grammatically before the final clause or phrase.
Forsyth contrasts hypotaxis as a complex style of writing involving the use of a large number of subordinate clauses, with parataxis which describes the style of writing with short simple sentences.
Diacope describes the close repetition of a word or phrase, separated by a word or words. Forsyth points to the film quote "Bond, James Bond" which he asserts is memorable not because of the name, or the scene, but simply to the use of diacope.
The rhetorical question is a device where a question is stated to make a point, without requiring any answer because it is intended to be obvious.
Hendiadys is a device used for emphasis, where an adjective-noun form is swapped for noun-and-noun.
Epistrophe is a device using the repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences for emphasis.
Further information: IsocolonWiki
Tricolon is where a sentence is composed of three equal parts. Forsyth points to the national motto of France (Liberté, égalité, fraternité) as one of his many examples of the impact of this device.
Epizeuxis is the repetition of a word or phrase in immediate succession, for emphasis.
Further information: ZeugmaWiki
Forsyth's definition is where a single word is used with two other parts of a sentence but must be understood differently in relation to each.
Forsyth's definition seems to state that a sentence is composed by two parts equivalent in structure, length and rhythm. Other sources suggest two or more parts, and relate tricolon which is mentioned in the earlier chapter.
Enallage consists of a "deliberate grammatical mistake".
Forsyth in this chapter discusses the effect of a few different verse forms used, including examples of iambic pentameter.
Zeugma is a series of clauses which use the same verb.
The paradox is a statement that is logically false or impossible for emphasis or contrast.
Chiasmus is a symmetrical repetition of structure or wording.
Further information: Assonance
This device consists of the repetition of a vowel sound.
The Fourteenth Rule
This chapter discusses the rhetorical device of providing an unnecessarily specific number for something for emphasis.
Further information: Catachresis
This device describes a grammatically wrong use of words as a means of creative expression.
This device emphasises a point by denying the opposite.
These devices are where something connected to the thing described, or a part of it, is used in place of the thing itself.
Further information: HypallageWiki
Where an adjective is applied to the wrong noun, for effect.
The use of superfluous and unnecessary words in a sentence for emphasis.
This describes the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning and end of a sentence or clause to emphasize circularity.
A description which imputes human actions or characteristics to an inanimate or non-human thing.
The rhetorical device of exaggeration.
Further information: Adynaton
This device describes a hyperbole so extreme as to be a complete impossibility.
Further information: Prolepsis (rhetoric)
This device describes the use of a pronoun at the start of a sentence, which reverses the normal order.
This device, Forysth defines as a bewildering list of adjectives or nouns.
Further information: Scesis Onomaton
Sentences without a main verb.
Further information: Anaphora (rhetoric)
Forsyth defines anaphora as starting each sentence with the same words.